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You will get an annual of how horny the career paths can be from the world stuffed in this ruling. Rosenbluth has also been elusive in its employees and services.

S d auteur Cont I. Travel rFee such an activity. For citt travel is a dream of a Fgee and working bational a job that makes it possible to travel can be a dream come true. This book is about fulfilling this dream. But it is first necessary to dispel the illusions. A career in travel is condidered very glamorous and adventurous. Once inside the industry, however, some. Most people who have not simply fallen 92118 a career in travel seek it because they 92118 to travel. Also, most people in the industry who travel do so for business purposes to the point where traveling can become too much of a good thing, bringing more stress than satisfaction.

You should pursue a career in travel because of the business and the producJ itself, namely, travel. Travel and tourism is one of the most dynamic industries any where, offering extraordinary opportunties for mobility, creativity and personal satisfaction Having a role in the betterment of society and contributing to world peace are not just ideals, they are integral to an endeavour that brings disparate peoples and Ideas together. In many ways, the travel industry is a business like any other, with many of the same concerns and problems that arise in selling groceries, making women's shoes, or designing office buildings.

There are the same concerns for profit and loss and for accounts receivable and payables; there are the same problems of productivity, market share, and high cost of investment capital that affect most industries. But people who have had an opportunity to experience other occupations fmd something special in the travel industry-energy, creativity, fast pace, diversity, challenge, and growth-that they had not found elsewhere. In fact, so often in this book people refer to their particular part of travel as "fun" and "showtime.

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The Free casual dating in national city ca 92181 product-travel-os like no other. Travel becomes addictive; it is for good reason that prople say they have been bitten by the "travel bug. Working in and with "travel" brings an excitement to the job that airline people feel even if they work miles away form the airport and that travel agents feel as they sit for hours on end searching the computer display for schedules and fares. There is a sense of sharing in some marvelous adventure. No matter how sophisticated airplanes or computer reservations systems of videotext systems become, there is no getting away from the fact that the business is all about sevicing people. The industry attracts People -people individuals who are energetic and open to new experiences, ideas, and most of all, people.

Because people tend to stay in the industry, even if they move from one area of work to another, a dose camaraderie usually develops even among those who work for competitors. In some respects, travel is a service; in others, it is a commodity, just as any item you but. Yet, unlike most other commodities, travel-a seat on an alrplane of a room in a hotel-cmnot be stored away. The hight perishability makes for high risk challenging industry professionals to be brilliant forecasters and marketers, to excel at information management and to be efficient operators.

On the other hand, the potential for the industry is unlimited, for unlike a VCR, which you might buy once and have for many years, travel is an experience that has to be renewed each time, and each time will be different. Moreove, there are unlimited possibilities in the style of travel. The same customer might take one trip or a dozen trips in a year, traveling for business vacations, and weekends, to visit family and friends or to take part in an event And people travel differently during the course of a lifetime: The customers for travel are not conftned to any particular stratum of society.

The travel industry is expanding and changing constantly, and new job titles and specialites arc bing crated all the time. Few industries provide as much opportunity for someone with limited formal education to rise as quickly through the randks Elements sous aroils a auteur - 4 Tourism and Travel Industry to positions of enormous responsibility and prestige; to be an entrepreneur; to work for some of the largest or smallest companies; and to see almost instant results from an innovation. Few industries provides as much mobility-moving up in an organization or to other companies or other fields and even to live and work virtually any where in the world.

A Vital and Necessary Service The term tourism may conjure up stereotypical images of paunchy, balding men in Bermuda shorts and blue-haired grannies in tennis shoes, disembarking from a tour bus with instant cameras in hand. In this context, travel and Free casual dating in national city ca 92181 seems frivolous and non-essential. Nothing could be further from the truth. Travel and tourism forms a complex network of vital and necessary sevices that touches virtually every individual and every business in the world. Leisure travelvacations for rest and relaxation, cultural prusuits, adventure, or visits with friends and relatives-is only half of what the travel and tourism industry does, but even these seeming luxuries have become necessities of modem life.

Nonetheless, the same airplanes, hotels, car rentals, and trains that are in place to serve the tourist also transport and house the business person negotiating deals, the diplomat,the politician, and the artist, the travel and tourism industry makes commerce, diplomacy, and exchanges of ideas and cultures possible. Faceto-face contacts between people at any distance whatsoever could not take place without the diverse services provided by travel and to urims. Modern transportation ha-; removed the obstacles of distance, enabling people to appreciate each other, engage in the exchange of ideas and commerce.

Tourism can help overcome real prejudices and foster bonds. Tourism can be a real force of world peace. For countries lacking valuable resources or heavy industry, tourism represents hope in breaking a spiral of poverty and misery. Closer to home, there are countless examples of communities where tourism is the base for the economy, including Orlando, Atlantic City, and Las Vegas. In short, people feel good about working in the travel industry and promoting tourism. Many are found of saying that travel dates back to Noah or Moses or the Pilgrims. The travel industry, however, is a phenomenon of the Industrial Revolution, with its social revolution of minimum wages and paid vacations, coupled witll the technological revolution that made for buses, jet planes, elevators, and air conditioning.

Mass travel and the annual vacation ritual only date from the end of World War 11, witll the jet plane and the packaged tour; in polls, travel ranks just after a home and an insurance policy as a necessary expense. Travel has not only changed from a luxury to a necessity in the American lifestyle, but the trend toward greater affiuence, the effect of mo. Indeed, many expect travel and tourism to become tlle single largest industry in the world by the year and not just in dollars, but in jobs. Six million Americans already make their living in the industry. Another two million are employed in related fields. The travel and tourism industry has Elements sous aroils a auteur 6 Tourism and Travel Industry shown an uncanny ability to generate new jobs even when the rest of the economy is in the doldrums, and the industry is expected to show some of the strongest growth rates in new jobs in the future.

Travel and tourism is so dive: But the industry is also real estate, ecology, urban planning, architecture, interior design, engineering, computer science, politics, public relations, marketing, personnel, publishing, telecommunications, finance, law, and scores of other fields. Travel and tourism employs archaeologists, sociologists, lawyers, doctors, teachers, computer specialists, artists, writers, marine scientists, actors, musicians, and countless other professionals. Indeed, the industry offers an alternate path to fulfill any number of professional dreams. Moreover, industry leaders express concern about a shortage of workers during this decade.

In the travel agency business, newcomers are having such a difficult time that they are o ffering to work for free in exchange for the training:: The demand for new employees is concentr. S d auleur Introduction and Overview 7 retain their on-the-job training programmes. Helping you get around the Catch of needing experience to get experience is the aim of this book. In the end, it does not matter whether there are thousands of jobs or only a few; all you want is one. Succeeding in getting one requires a strategy. You need to be able to focus in and target your objectives and to convince a potential employer that even if you do not actually have industry experience, you understand the fundamentals and are motivated to learn.

There are no sure-fire methods of landing a job. It comes down to personalities and the philosophy of the person doing the hiring. You will get an idea of how varied the career paths can be from the people interviewed in this book. The infonnation is intended to give you the fundamentals so that you cart demonstrate to a potential employer some understanding of the business. It will also give you a better handle on whether a fields is right for you. It will show you that there is more than one way of accomplishing your primary goals.

This book will also give you a better idea of what employers are looking for so that you can make a more convincing presentation during an interview. Indeed, a career is more than any one job; it is a. In travel, especially, you may start off in the hotel business and wind up in airlines or car rcntals or travel agencies. The travel industry is expanding so rapidly that in most instances the objectives is just to get into a field or a company any way that you can- as a reservationist, a receptionist, a secretary, a clerk, or an accountant. This is particularly true if you are coming from anothe r fie ld to a similar job in travel.

You will then be able to more up o r move over extremely rapidly. Elements sous aroils a auteur 8 Tourism and Travel Industry The industry is recognizing the need to prepare for middle management by creating more entry-level training and development programmes. Indeed, it is likely that two distinct career paths to the top will emerge-one from within the ranks and one from vocational and academic programmes. So many people fall into their careers and live with frustration and"discontentment until they are able to retire. After nearly 20 years as a journalist reporting on the travel industry and now as an executive recruiter for the travel industry, interacting with literally thousands of professionals and watching them rise in their careers, I can honestly say that I have never met so man people who love what they do.

A career in travel is competitive, challenging, and frequently beyond control, but it is also fun. There is a certain giddy delight attached to working in travel. This book is written for those who aspire to management or a profession in travel and tourism, for those who seek more than a job, but a career in travel. Let this be your guide to success. S d auteur Introduction and Overview 9 their dependence on tourism, since visitors are [often] indistinguishable from local customers. Despite advancements in telecommunications-and sometimes because of themphysically traveling has become more iinportant than ever.

Indeed, Americans took a total of 1. The travel and tourism industry is the third largest retail industry in business receipts after automotive dealers and food stores, according to the USTDC, which measures the economic impact of travel and tourism in the United States. To put these extraordinary figures into p erspective, Americans spent more on travel than on clothing, accessories, jewellry, and personal care combined or on household utilities, including telephone service, the USTDC noted. Most of the money goes to airlines, car rentals, bus companies, cruiselines, the reilroad, lodgings, restaurants, tour companies, travel agents, attractions and theme parks, sightseeing companies, and convention centers.

In 48 of the 50 states and in thousands of localities, to urism has become the leading employer. In many areastourism has brought renewed vitality to communities once dependent on smokestack industries. Over the post decade, travel industry emplo yml'nt has Elements sous drot! S d auteur 10 Tourism and Travel Industry grown 43 per cent, more than twice the growth r: And, sincepayro ll jobs in travel-related businesses have more than doubled, while total U. Few trave companies appeal to the entire spectrum of travelers; instead they gear their products or services to distinct markets.

This is called market segmentation For example, many marketers are looking at the fantastic growth among women business travelers. Many hotel companies have gone so far as to create "women-only" floors to cater to this market.

The family market is another growth area, as the Baby Boomers the huge population bom between and become parents themselves. Club Med has responded by opening up "mini dubs" and baby clubs" at some of its resorts; the cruise industry has provided child care centres on board ships. Some companies are targeting the toyear old group because they tend to be single and have a lot of discretionary money; others eye the toyear-old group of dual-income, childless couples, who have money, if not much time, to travel; still others target senior citizens, who control the biggest chunk of discretionary income and have the time and inclination to travel. The phenomenon of market segmentation is most apparent in the hotel industry, where hotels are being divided by floors according to the services and pricing that would appeal to a particular market.

Airlines, of course, have been offering first, business, and tourist classes for years. But virtually evey travel entity and everyone working in travel is affected by three key interrelated developments: These are essential to understanding the dynamics of the travel industry. Though Elements sous drot! S d auteur Introduction and Overview 11 hotels, tour companies, car rental agencies, cruiselines, and others had alwys been deregulated the deregulation of these key industry segments has enonnous impact on their own businesses. By replacing what had essentially been a franchise with free market competition, companies had to revamp their products, their pricing, and the manner in which they distributed to their customers.

The path was open for innovation, new companies, new services, and new ways of doing business. Travel was always and industry of low profit margin, and deregulation put additional pressure on cost controls and maximizing productivity. The plethora of products and services has made computerized information and reservation systems essential. Consider that there are some five million airfares, changing at the rate ofat week. Though travel is not generally considered "high-tech," the industry is, in fact, on the leading edge of consumer applications of sophisticated computers, connunications, and transportetion modes, in distribution marketing and pruduct sevices.

With the greater premium placed on productivity, as well as on the need for capital-intensive technology and expensive marketing a third trend had developed-consolidation. Consolidation is most visilbe among airlines where mergers acquisition, and bankruptcies have whittled down the number to a few major carriers. Consolidation has brought retrenchment by companies ion which whole tiers of middle and upper management have been eliminated. S d auteur 12 Tourism and Travel Industry New opportunities are opening up all the time. There is enonnous demand for marketers, quality control coordinators, computer specialists, yield management experts, reserchers, trainers, and prople with international business and language skills.

On the other hand, many entry-level jobs have been eliminated. Regardless of the kind of travel entity, there are categories of activities that are common to almost every one: Now, a second career path is emerging, with a new breed of travel professionals coming out of colleges, unciersities, and vocational schools, as well as from other industries. While the outlook for travel and tourism is extremely bright, there is great volatility within the industry, This year's hot spot may be next year's trouble spot. Changes in air fares, currency destinations; weather, natural disasters, or strikes can also destroy a destination or a company.

This is not an industry to go into for security; it is an industry to go into for challenge, excitement and responsibility. In the subsequent chapters, we will look at the various entitiles that collectivle make up the travel and tourism industry. Since this book lools at the people that make travel and tourism activity possible, we will not just look at the conventional categories. We will look instead at the entire system, including, for port serviced. For this book is aimed at helping you share in the incomparable experience that working in the travel and tourism industry affords.

Fulfiller of Drcarms In the days when travel was a once-in-a-lifetime event Free casual dating in national city ca 92181 travel agent was quite literally a "fulfiller of dreams" - the one who made such life long amitions of traveling to exotic locales reality. Even today, when travel is more of an annual rite than an extraordinary event, most agents still see thier function as fulfilling dreams for in essence, agents sell an experience in order to satisfy client expectations. To most people, the travel agent personifies the travel industry.

The most visible segment of the industry, the agent is actually the last link in an indicate chain of facilities and sevices. To travel suppliers like airlines, hotels, car rental companies, tour operators. The travel agency gives the suppliers local contact with the public that they could not afford on their own. Many people confuse the ''travel agent" with the "travel agency. Some of the largest travel agencies that haneld commercial travel travel for business purposes even empty a quality control coordinator, who acts as a liasion between client and agency.

The travel agent treads a ftne line between: Thought there are often monetary incentives in the form of override commissions to book a certain airline, tour company, car rental't1nn, and so on, their primary concern is to recommend the onl: Unlike the real estate agency that sees its client once in five or ten years or a lifetime or the fast-food restarurant that sells a stadardized product, the travel agent services more than sells a client once, twice, or perhpas' ten times in a single year. Though today's travelers may be more sophisticated and experienced, there is still a lot of hand-holding by their travel agents, who become trusted professionals muxh like their doctors, lawyers, or accountants.

Agents generally feel a tremendous sense of responsibility about making everything go perfectrly, by tying all the myriad details of a trip togerther. Travel agency work affords an opportunity to become a professional with little or no advanced schooling. The work involves considerable problem-solving ability as well as the ability to deal with details and organize them. People-contact face-to-face and by telephone is the essence of the job; in fact, contacts with both clients and suAPliers are as important to professioanal success as product knowledge. Having contacts inside travel companies themselves enables the agent lo free up space at a hotel that is "booked solid," upgrade an airline ticket, or get extra or special service for a VIP.

Nor is the client contact merely casual, "You have to involve yourself w ith the customer," reflected jaime Patxot, a New York-based agent. We are psychiatrists sometimes. Well over 95 per cent of the more than 32, appointed travel agencies are now automated with airline reservations systems. No day is the same; each day presents new challenges. Indeed, deregulation the lifting of government-imposed rules on business operations among airlines and agencies has introduced an entirely new element to the business-negotiations with travel suppliers on rates and commissions and even sevices.

The travel agency business offers excellent career mobility. Getting into the business is extremely dilTkult because ex-perience is at a premium and the pace, economics of the business, and reliance on computers no longer allow for appre nticeships. Mobility is more linited in small agencies, but large agency organi7. The travel agency industry is still very entrepreneurial. Ambitious agents who reach their heightS: S d auteur 16 Tourism and Travel Industry The smallest agencies generally have one to four people owner manger, counselor and bookkeeper o r clerk; there also may be some commissined outside sales agents.

Medium-sized agencies may have a groups specialist, a commercial department, and counselores who apecialize in destinations such as the Caribean, or Europe or in cruises. The largest agencies are organized much like other big businesses, with personnel, operations, and marketing and sales department: Indeed, one "mega agency" lists different job tiitles. The pace of work is usually hectic, sometimes frantic. It gets to you," reflected Kelly. The daily rush is intensified whenever there is an airline strike, a natural disaster, or some other event that would necessitate changing travel arrangements.

While the travel agent primarily services a client the agent also must be a salesperson; the sales inventor is represented by the brochures on the rack. But the rest, you do sell. I show the client the world; he buys one piece of it," he said. Agent are also frequently encouraged by manageme nt to "sell up" to higher-priced programmes or Elements sous drot! S d auteur Travel Agents and Travel Agencies 17 to push "preferred" suppliers because they pay higher commissions to the agency. Agents also act as salespeople by drawing new clients to an agency but frequntly agencies employ outside salespeople who work solely on commission to perfom1 this function. Increasingly the travel agent functions as an infom1aion provider, drawing to some extent on personal familiarity and experience with places, facilities, and companies, but relying increasingly on powerful computers, we ightey references, and even video brochures.

Travellng is not So Free Most people who become travel agents do so mainly because they expect to travel extensively for: Familiarization trips, or "fams" as they are called, which agents take in order to get to know destinations and facilitiew are only occasionally free. Usually, they cost the agents something. A working agem is generally entitled to reducedrate travel on many airlines, but airlines are becoming more restrictive on the p asses. The JRS now is looking, to tax the trips as fringes benefits. Also, employes extablish policy on whether fams are to be taken as vacation time and whether the agent pays for the trip out of this or her own pocket. Moreover, time on these trips is generally taken up with seminars and hotel inspections leaving little free time.

Still, it is true that most travel agents travel considerbly more than the: The glamour attached to travel and the opportun ity to travel at reduced cost were considered benefits. The fact that the job is frequently a second income in a household since most agents were women returning to work after raising their familiesand the fact that not much educational or prior work experience is required also tended to keep wages down. While it is possible to make a fairly good income even six figures for the most ambitious commissioned sales agents with an elite follwoing or for a vice president of a large, multibranch agencysalaries are about 20 to 40 per cent lower than in comparable positions in other industires.

According to a "Salary. Agencies with a business-travel sales orientation generally pay more than those focused around leisure travel. Salaries are linked to agency volume: About two-thirds of all gencies comp ensate inside sales agents on a salary-only basis. Agency sales volume is also a factor: About one third of the agency sales force is on some sort of commission structure either exclusively 22 per cent or partly. However, there is a category of outside sales agents as distinguished from inside sales agents, who tend to work on salyarywho almost always work exclusibly on commission, which generally is a percentage of the net commission earned on the business they bring in.

Most outside sales agents who do al their own work sales as well as ticketing and documentation earn 41 to 50 pe r cent of the net commission; outside sales agents who rely on assistance from agency staff typically make 21 to 40 per cent of the commission net commission is about 10 per cent of the sale. How much a commissioned agent makes depends largely upon the type of clients that the agent brings in corporate clients, independent leisure clients, or groups. Salaries are generally a function of sales volume, number of staff managed, and size of the company. Large agencies have more specialization and more positions with management responsibility and thus pay considerably more than the typical travel agency.

Salaries for agents are improving as well. Because of the complexity and share quantity of travel products and offerings and the computerized systems necessary for day-to-day functions, travel agents are just beginning to be appreciated as true profesionals. There are presently abouttrnvel agents; by the yearforecasts call for betweenandaccording to the Department of Labor, which lists travel agents as one of the fastest-growing professions for the decade. In all, industry experts estimate that there will be a need for 24, new travel agents each year throughout the decade to cover growth and attrition. An experienced agent skilled in using an airline computerized reservations system is in enormous demand.

Moreover, agency locations had been prolifernting at the rate of 5 to 10 per cent a year, making new owners desperate to hire agents with two years of ticketing experience to meet the Airlines Reporting Corporation appointment requirements. All of t11ese factors are helping to improve salaries. Increasingly, trnvel agencies are attempting to improve compensation tl1rough more use of incentive programs, whereby agents earn a base salary plus commission. At Rosenbluth Travel, a Philadelphia-based mega agency with an innovative incentive programme, agents were able to increase their compensation by 27 per cent. According to ASTA's "Agency Salary and Benefits Survey", most agencies provide at least some type of paid familiarization trip annually but some require the agent to pay for all or part.

Most agencies provide free or reduced rate travel as well as career-related educational benefits. However, agencies tend to be weak in providing most other benefits.

Only one-third of all agencies un the full cost of employee hospitalization and major medical insurance; 40 per cent provide no casuual insurance at all a legacy form the time when most agents were mature women whose husbands' jobs provided health coverage. Who Becomes an Agent? In a business where ctiy is becoming increasingly improtant, a sizable proportion of the work force consists of newcomers, which largely reflects the astronomical growth of the field since Even owners are new; 16 per cent have been in the business less than three years.

While we tend to think of "entry-level" workers as people who are just statting out in their careers, the travel agency industry has traditionally been a popular one for people who are changing careers, starting over after raising a family, or retiring from something else. This is convenient, too, because many agencies openly admit that starting salaries would be indadequate for someone who depended solely on the one salary. S d auteur 22 Tourism and Travel Industry Increasingly. While these people are content to take lower pay initially, they are still forcing new standards and expectations.

Sharon caldwell, for example, was a teacher for seven years and then a nurse before becoming a travel agenL "As a nurse, you deal with patients, families, life and death. It takes a lot of energy on a consistent basis. Travel agency work is relaxing in comparison. The study data revealed that mostly negative frames were emphasized in the coverage of the Iraq issue. This paper examines the dominant frames and sources used by The New York Times and The Washington Post in covering the issue over a month period, and how these possibly contributed to the passing of new regulations to address these breaches.

You are only as possible as your last exam. Faces stumbled that fact frames alone did not much values, but when right frames were interacted with pre-existing breeders, significant results suggested. S d communication Error Agents and Travel Altitudes.

When female experts were cited, they were likely to receive less space and appear deeper in a story than male experts. News exposure was associated with the greater perceived threat, more negative stereotypes, and greater avoidance of intergroup interaction. Perceived threat and stereotypes both predicted greater avoidance of intergroup interaction. Findings are discussed in light of integrated threat theory, exemplification theory and social identity theory. Did the media help inflate the housing bubble? A content analysis of newspaper coverage from to was combined with national survey data.

Findings indicate that there was indeed a relationship between both the amount and type of media coverage and public perceptions regarding the housing market. A content analysis examined late-night comedy jokes about the war in Iraq from March — March The most common type of comedy employed to discuss Iraq was informative. The topics discussed in the jokes varied. The articles were chosen based on specific parameters, including a date range of November 28, to November 6, and a word-count of or more. The main focus is on how news media in Japan and South Korea tried to represent their own interpretation of the memory.

This study seeks to update research on the sex-typing of sports with an exploration of how visual priming, through sports images, may be influenced by participation, mediated sports consumption and gender of consumers. Blogs and the Iraq War: Limited evidence was found that A-list political blogs influenced news coverage. Military deaths influenced news coverage, but White House news releases were less influential. Michael Maher; William R. Twenty-four interviews with Sri Lankan and Israeli-Palestinian journalists were conducted, and their work samples were analyzed for the presence of pro-war frames developed using peace journalism guidelines. Specifically, we examine to what degree the distinction between foci and frames described by Brossard et al.

Value Frames in Health Communication: Literature on persuasion, media priming, and framing help explicate the role that value frames play in activating individual values. An experiment exposed subjects to value frames about a smoking ban. Results demonstrated that value frames alone did not affect values, but when value frames were interacted with pre-existing orientations, significant results emerged. Media Use and Perceptions of Citizen Activities: The content analysis found that citizens were frequently depicted as stating political opinions and as the object of government law, policy, or actions. Using Pew Research Center data, initial regression equations revealed the significant relationships among the three sets of associations between political extremity and political blog use, political extremity and media attitudes, and media attitudes and political blog use.

This article reports a 2 Console: Portable or Television-Based X 2 Medium: Video Game or Movie mixed factorial design experiment with physiological arousal and self-reported flow experience as dependent variables, designed to explore whether console type affects media experiences and whether these effects are consistent with different media. Blogs and Intermedia Agenda-Setting: These correlations showed that candidate blogs and political blogs maintained consistent issue agendas. The study will also examine the degree to which reliance on blogs for war information predicts their credibility after controlling for demographic and political factors. Going to the Blogs: Rather than relying on motivations from pre-existing scales measuring traditional media or Internet use that must be adapted for blogs, this study relies on open-ended questions about blog use derived from a previous survey.

The research especially focuses on transformation of news content and forms in the diffusion process, which the previous news diffusion study has neglected at the expense of concentrating on news awareness of the individual adopters. The Irony of Satire: Results indicate that political ideology influences individual-level processing of ambiguous political comedy. The Investigative Reporting Agenda in America: Ratings Creep and PG Sixty films were analyzed. Significant increases in violence among PG films were found; increases in other adult content were not.

Issue Constraints and Gatekeeping: This study explores the question of to what extent such issue constraints are present in news sites. This study tested the potential impact of two different celebrities, a non-celebrity, and a control condition with no message on the perceptions of those with major depression among a population of undergraduates. Results suggest that while the endorsement message conditions did improve perceptions relative to the control condition, the two celebrities differed dramatically in their effect. The impact of the above main factors was analyzed through a survey-based analysis of viewpoints expressed by American and Japanese college students.

Because television is the primary source of information on organ donation, entertainment-education campaigns may be an effective strategy. Previous research has linked narrative engagement to changes in attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. This study empirically tested the influence of narrative engagement on entertainment-education efforts. Results indicated that entertainment-education programming was more successful than standard entertainment programming at influencing organ donation attitudes. Blogging the Horse Race: This content analysis investigates how blogs covered the presidential primaries.

Bloggers used the horse-race theme in reporting and focused on candidate performance more often than print media at rates that were statistically significant. Also, horse-race reporting in both media was found to include a more complex mixture of issue coverage than previous similar studies had indicated. Interest was related to political and negative political advertising attention, which were in turn related to campaign news attention. Candidate preference predicted attention to political and negative political ads; attention to ads significantly predicted perceived effects on self and on others, while negative ad attention significantly predicted third-person differential other minus self.

Values and media use in Germany, This study explores for the first time historically whether an expanding media offer has been accompanied by a selection behavior more and more determined by individual values.

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