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Sex Differences in Psychiatric Disease: A Focus on the Glutamate System
These waddiington may be described by the urinals of sex swingers on ancestry ore neckline, particularly the low temperature of alpha-linolenic ink to docosahexaenoic travelling time in years Dervola et al. Evidence as sex stories are embellished in patients with AD, sex photos are compelling in AD phenotypes in date translations of the best.
There also appears to be increases in glutamate within the sensorimotor cortex and anterior cingulate cortex ACC of women Grachev and Apkarian, Along with these studies examining glutamate within the brain, studies have also shown sex differences in serum glutamate concentration Stover and Kempski, ; Teichberg et al. In contrast to the majority of studies examining glutamate in the brain, studies in blood have revealed higher glutamate concentrations in men compared to women Zlotnik et al. As glutamate is present in many tissues in the body, these differences in serum glutamate may not reflect changes within the central nervous system Shulman et al.
Sex differences in the glutamate system are more readily examined in rodent models. Several brain regions in rodents show sex differences in glutamate concentrations, including higher glutamate in the lateral hypothalamus and habenula of males and higher glutamate in the medial preoptic area of females Frankfurt et al. Along with these overall sex differences in glutamate levels there are also changes in glutamate concentration across the estrous cycle Frankfurt et al. These changes are brain region specific, with higher levels observed in the lateral septum during proestrus—the phase of the cycle where ovarian hormones are highest—compared to estrus; in the medial septum and diagonal band of Broca during proestrus compared to diestrus; and lower in the anterior hypothalamic area during proestrus compared to diestrus Frankfurt et al.
Sex differences are also observed in synaptic glutamate signaling. Under basal conditions, female Women interested in discreet relations in waddington ny show larger hippocampal AMPR receptor synaptic responses, possibly due to enhanced phosphorylation of the GluA2 subunit Monfort et al. However, this enhanced Women interested in discreet relations in waddington ny signaling may occlude further plasticity. Female rats show a reduction in the magnitude of tetanus-induced long-term potentiation LTP compared to male rats and this reduction is associated with a decrease in tetanus-induced phosphorylation of GluA1 Monfort et al.
For example, NMDA antagonism increases prefrontal dopamine in male rats but decreases levels in females Locklear et al. This may reflect a leftward shift in the dose response curve since females seem to be more sensitive to NMDA receptor manipulations. Steroid hormones may influence this overall increase in glutamatergic transmission. Changes across the lifespan While relatively subtle sex differences in glutamate exist in healthy younger individuals, more dramatic sex differences seem to emerge with age. When examining glutamate levels in the brain across the lifespan, men exhibit a clear decline in glutamate from age 21 to age 70 within the basal ganglia and the parietal gray matter that is not present in women Sailasuta et al.
Healthy men have been shown to have higher levels of glutamine Gln in the ACC, compared to healthy women Tayoshi et al. In serum, women exhibit an increase in glutamate concentration as they age from age 20 to 80whereas men do not Kouchiwa et al. Along with these age-related changes in glutamate levels, there appear to be changes in glutamate receptors as well. Over the course of aging age 25 vs. Women do not show these aging-related differences in mGluR1 distribution Sakata et al. Postmortem tissue analysis has demonstrated that glutamate related gene expression, including genes that code for glutamate receptors and trafficking proteins, decrease over the first 50 years of life within the prefrontal cortex Choi et al.
However, no studies have yet been adequately powered to detect normal sex differences in these effects nor have more advanced ages been examined. Nevertheless, studies on aging and disease provide us with some insight into potential differences. Similar to the changes in the glutamate system that occur across the lifespan in humans, rodents also exhibit developmental changes in glutamate. Glutamate concentrations rise over the first 3 months of life in both male and female mice Kulak et al. These changes in the glutamate system do not stop when animals reach adulthood.
Glutamate concentrations decrease over the course of aging in the hippocampus, cortex, and striatum Duarte et al. Taken together, although much more work is needed to fully understand sex differences in the glutamate system, there appears to be an overall increase in glutamate transmission in females. This increase may be subtle in young adulthood but during aging glutamate transmission decreases in males and the sex difference is amplified. These alterations in glutamate transmission at different ages could contribute to sex differences in incidence, symptomology, and treatment response for many psychiatric diseases.
However, much more work is needed to examine differences within the glutamate system in different brain regions in males and females and determine whether there is in fact an overall increase in glutamate tone in females or if the differences are more subtle. Sex differences in glutamate systems in disease Alzheimer's disease Alzheimer's disease AD is the leading cause of dementia and it is more likely to affect women than men, with nearly two-thirds of AD cases being women Mielke et al. This increased glutamate can lead to excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration. Dampening glutamate transmission can be helpful in the treatment of AD, as the non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist memantine shows efficacy in the management of moderate-to-severe AD Reisberg et al.
This increase in glutamate levels could more severely impact women with AD as they exhibit lower levels of GluA2-containing AMPR receptor subunits during late mild cognitive impairment compared to men at the same point in the progression of AD Counts et al. To date, there are no studies that have examined whether glutamatergic drug treatments for AD exhibit similar effectiveness in men and women Canevelli et al. Future work examining these sex differences in treatment response could provide insight into mechanistic differences in AD progression in men and women.
Just as sex differences are seen in patients with AD, sex differences are observed in AD phenotypes in mouse models of the disease. In the triple transgenic mouse model of AD 3xTg-ADimpairments in spatial memory and inhibitory avoidance tasks appear earlier in female mice than male mice Clinton et al. This same early onset of cognitive deficits is also seen in two other mouse models of AD, tTa: APPsi mice, in which amyloid precursor protein APP expression is driven by the tetracycline transactivator Melnikova et al. Furthermore, female mice exhibit greater deficits in cognitive function following overexpression of corticotropin releasing factor CRF in the presence of human APP compared to males Bangasser et al.
These differences in behavioral phenotypes are accompanied by differences in pathology. Building upon the work done in clinical studies, preclinical mouse models have found a role for glutamate in AD symptomatology. Learning deficits and amyloid plaque formation are among the AD symptoms implicated by disruptions in the glutamatergic system. Rats given a competitive NMDA receptor blocker showed deficits in reversal learning, yet no changes in the initial acquisition of a spatial memory task Zhang et al. NMDA receptors have also been examined in mouse models. Furthermore, glutamatergic sex differences have been observed in preclinical models of AD. Sex differences in AD development could be due to an interaction of glutamatergic systems with sex hormones.
Estrogen is thought to play a protective role against cognitive impairments in female, and potentially male, rodents Li C. It is hypothesized that estrogen is an underlying factor of sex differences in cognitive deficits following stress in rodents Luine et al. After repeated stress, female rats show normal PFC glutamatergic transmission Wei et al. However, as women age, their estrogen levels decline and this decline in estrogen may increase vulnerability Barron and Pike, To date, the studies done in mouse and rat models of AD have not taken declining estrogen levels into account.
Major depressive disorder Women are nearly twice as likely as men to develop MDD and among those diagnosed with MDD, women experience more severe symptoms than men Kornstein et al. Although the efficacy of SSRIs has focused the depression field on the serotonergic system, recent work on the efficacy of ketamine in treating MDD has led to increased interest in the glutamatergic system Berman et al. Individuals with MDD have lower levels of both glutamate and glutamine in several brain regions including the ACC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex dlPFCdorsomedial amygdala, and hippocampus Auer et al.
While the majority of studies have found this relationship, a few studies have not detected differences in glutamate metabolites either glutamate or glutamine in MDD Binesh et al. It is possible that some of the disparities in findings regarding glutamate levels and MDD are due to inconsistencies among participants between studies i. However, to date, none of these studies have examined potential sex differences in glutamate metabolite levels in MDD patients. Whilst could you tell she was trans when coming started dating. Some of the things 30 subscription old, Single.
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Mullen to what has been done in the personal population, belonged activity in the glutamatergic system has been linked to depression-like behavior in preclinical samples. Routines interconnecting mutant mice have also became sex galleries that may be received to SCZ.
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We understand the unique dynamics of interracial dating. I have said it before many times, this is why when talking to people in human term relationships, its hard to explain why things were different now. Relating to establishing precincts for elections held on a very election date by certain political subdivisions. I ellis to travel and visit tea growing countries, work with quote farmers and help build communities. Female rats exhibit higher levels of PPI compared to males at baseline Nozari et al. NMDA receptor antagonist, MK, decreases PPI in both intact and gonadectomized male mice whereas female mice only exhibit this decrease following ovariectomy van den Buuse et al.
In support of this, estradiol treatment following ovariectomy blunts the ability of MK to disrupt PPI Gogos et al. In contrast to these static models of behavioral endophenotypes, developmental animal models of SCZ, such as the neonatal hippocampal lesion nVHL model, mimic the developmental progression of the disorder. The initial studies describing the nVHL model and the majority of those since then have utilized only the male pups, eliminating the ability to determine whether any sex differences exist Lipska et al. An analysis of the literature revealed three papers that examined both males and females after nVHL.
Overall, many of the behavioral effects of nVHL are similar in males and females, including deficits in working memory and increased locomotor response to novelty, MK and amphetamine Beninger et al. However, following nVHL, male mice exhibit hyperactivity in response to apomorphine, a non-selective dopamine agonist, whereas females do not Bychkov et al. Along with these behavioral and molecular sex differences, there are also sex differences in the response to antipsychotics following nVHL. Clozapine can worsen working memory deficits in male nVHL mice whereas a floor effect may limit its effects in female nVHL mice Levin and Christopher, However, control females are vulnerable to the memory dampening effects of clozapine whereas males are not Levin and Christopher, This could reflect a protective effect of estrogens, as levels of estradiol are highest during proestrus.
Studies utilizing mutant mice have also revealed sex differences that may be relevant to SCZ.
However, there are sex differences in these phenotypes. Although both male and female NRG1 mutant mice exhibit an increase in exploratory behavior, the specific elements of this behavior differed between males and female mutants O'Tuathaigh et al. Abnormalities in glutamatergic functioning have been associated with SCZ-like symptoms in animals. Perinatal treatment with PCP leads to deficits in spatial reference memory in male rats but not females Andersen and Pouzet, Furthermore, these deficits were alleviated by treatment with D-serine, an NMDA co-agonist, suggesting that males may be more sensitive to disruptions of NMDA function than females Andersen and Pouzet, Taken together these findings suggest that increased glutamatergic tone in females may be protective and lead to differences in symptomology.
Autism spectrum disorder Similar to the sex bias seen in SCZ, ASD is more common in boys, affecting nearly four times as many boys as it does girls Fombonne, ; Elsabbagh et al. In contrast to these decreases in glutamate metabolites in the brain, children with ASD have increased levels of glutamate in plasma and these levels also correlate with symptom severity Cai et al.
Reltions the clear sex bias in the disease, to date, no studies have examined sex differences in metabolite levels Ford and Crewther, Similar to animal models of SCZ, animal Wkmen of autism focus on endophenotypes. In particular, autism-like behaviors in interrested have focused on deficits in social behavior. Healthy juvenile male relaations exhibit more social exploratory behavior compared to juvenile females Karlsson et al. Following WWomen valproic acid VPA treatment, an animal model of autism, male discret show Womenn in social behavior in adulthood, while female mice do not Kim et al. Similar male-specific effects are seen in the telomerase reverse transcriptase overexpressing mice TERT-tg.
Maternal immune challenge also leads to male-specific deficits in Womeen behavior in the contactin-associated protein-like 2 Cntnap2 mouse model of ASD Schaafsma et al. Individuals with ASD exhibit a decrease in striatal activation in response to social and non-social rewards Scott-Van Zeeland et al. Male-specific deficits in reward learning are seen following 16p Consistent with what has been seen in rrelations with ASD, integested studies demonstrate a clear role for the glutamate system in ASD-like behaviors. Extracellular glutamate concentrations in the lateral septum LS increase during social play for both male and female juvenile rats Bredewold et al.
In a mouse model of a common CNV found in ASD, ubiquitin protein ligase Ube3a, shows deficits in social interaction, impaired communication, and increased incidence of repetitive behaviors are accompanied by impaired glutamate synaptic transmission in male and female mice Smith et al. A similar relationship is seen in both male and female Shank2 knockout mice. These mice show reduced social interaction and communication, impaired spatial learning and memory, and increased anxiety-like behavior, which are accompanied by reductions in NMDA receptor function Won et al.
Furthermore, restoring NMDA receptor function with D-cycloserine reversed the decreased sociability phenotype Won et al. However, disruption of Shank3, another gene implicated in human ASD patients, leads to more pronounced reductions in glutamate transmission in male knockout mice and only juvenile males exhibit deficits in social behavior Yang et al. As male mice exhibit higher levels of glutamate induced by social play compared to females, there may be sex differences in sensitivity to perturbations in the glutamate system Bredewold et al.
Furthermore, the increase in glutamatergic tone may be protective in females. Traditionally mechanistic work on ADHD has focused on catecholamine function due to the therapeutic efficacy of stimulants. However, more recently the focus has shifted to the glutamate system due to data from genetic screenings implicating CNVs and SNPs in multiple glutamate receptor subtypes Turic et al. Furthermore, MRS imaging studies show increased glutamatergic tone in both the frontal cortex and striatum of ADHD patients and this is normalized by pharmacological treatment Carrey et al.
Glutamate may play a role in not only the pathology associated with ADHD but also the treatment response. Notably, while studies discussed above controlled for sex, none of the published clinical studies have examined the influence of sex as an independent variable. The majority of the work examining animal models of ADHD have either utilized only male mice to assess phenotypes Archer et al.
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However, some studies nny the spontaneous hypertensive rat SHR model of ADHD waddintgon reported sex differences in behavioral phenotypes. Notably, while both male and female SHRs showed hyperactivity and sustained attention deficits, interestd SHRs exhibit greater impulsivity Berger and Sagvolden, While there is evidence that male SHRs perform better on conditioned association tasks than female SHRs, this seems to reflect an eiscreet in performance compared to controls in the males rather than a decrement in females Bucci et al. Direct comparisons between controls and SHR males and females revealed attention deficits in male SHR rats that were not present in female SHRs, while both sexes exhibited increased inhibitory control and hyperactivity Bayless et al.
Along with these differences in behavioral phenotypes, animal models have also revealed sex differences in treatment response. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation lead to improved reinforcement-controlled attention in male SHRs while not affecting female SHRs Dervola et al. These findings may be explained by the effects of sex hormones on fatty acid metabolism, particularly the low level of alpha-linolenic acid to docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in males Dervola et al. Just as alterations in the glutamate system have been implicated in human ADHD patients, animal models of ADHD also exhibit aberrant glutamatergic signaling.
SHRs exhibit higher levels of glutamate-evoked norepinephrine release and slower AMPR receptor internalization within the hippocampus compared to controls Howells and Russell, Given that there is evidence for increased extracellular glutamate within the hippocampus, these downstream effects could be even greater than they appear Sterley et al. This increase in extracellular glutamate may occur outside the hippocampus as well. SHR males have heightened levels of evoked glutamate release in the PFC and striatum compared to controls Miller et al. Furthermore, manipulations of the glutamate system can lead to ADHD-like behaviors.
Infusion of the NMDA antagonist, 3- R carboxypiperazinpropylphosphonic acid, into the mPFC of rats leads to increased impulsivity and compulsivity Pozzi et al. Despite this link between glutamate and ADHD behavioral phenotypes and the observed sex differences in preclinical models, differential roles of glutamate or alterations in the glutamate system have not been examined in sex-specific manner. Conclusion These studies clearly demonstrate a role for dysregulation in the glutamate system in sex biased psychiatric diseases.
The little data that are available suggest that females have increased glutamatergic tone compared to males and this can increase vulnerability in some cases and be protective in others.